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It's Time The Truth Be Told About Marijuana

Does The U.S. Government Own A Patent On Marijuana

Does The U.S. Government Own A Patent On Marijuana?
Tech U.S.
— Jul 25, 2014

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Patent No. 6630507, held by the United States Department of Health and Human Services, covers the use of cannabinoids for treating a wide range of diseases.

Under U.S. federal law, marijuana is defined as having no medical use. So it might come as a surprise to hear that the government owns one of the only patents on marijuana as a medicine.

The patent (US6630507) is titled “Cannabinoids as antioxidants and neuroprotectants” and was awarded to the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) in October 2003.

It was filed four years earlier, in 1999, by a group of scientists from the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), which is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH).

What is Patent No. 6630507?

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The patent claims exclusive rights on the use of cannabinoids for treating neurological diseases, such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and stroke, and diseases caused by oxidative stress, such as heart attack, Crohn’s disease, diabetes and arthritis.

Cannabinoids are a diverse class of compounds that include many of the unique compounds found in marijuana. A number of experts, including CNN’s chief medical correspondent Dr. Sanjay Gupta, have noted the contradiction between federal marijuana law and the government’s patent.

“The United States government owns a patent on marijuana as a medical application… So we have a patent through our Department of HHS on marijuana as a therapeutic and we also schedule it as a Schedule I.”

It is easy to think of the patent as a patent on marijuana itself. However, this would be inaccurate, since the patent actually covers non-psychoactive cannabinoids (both synthetic and natural), meaning those that don’t cause a high.

The patent also covers only a specific application of these cannabinoids and not the production or use of marijuana and cannabinoids overall.

The Invention

The patent claims to “provide a new class of antioxidant drugs, that have particular application as neuroprotectants.”

According to the description, the inventors recognized “a previously unanticipated antioxidant property of the cannabinoids in general (and cannabidiol in particular).” Importantly, the patent does not cover cannabinoids that act through cannabinoid pathways, also known as receptors.

“This new found property makes cannabinoids useful in the treatment and prophylaxis of wide variety of oxidation associated diseases, such as ischemic, age-related, inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The cannabinoids are found to have particular application as neuroprotectants, for example in limiting neurological damage following ischemic insults, such as stroke and trauma, or in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and HIV dementia.”

CBD and Non-Psychoactive Cannabinoids

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The government’s patent does not cover THC, the main ingredient in marijuana. On the other hand, cannabidiol (CBD) is specifically mentioned as an example of a cannabinoid that is covered. The patent describes CBD and other non-psychoactive cannabinoids as superior when taken in higher doses.

“Nonpsychoactive cannabinoids, such as cannabidiol, are particularly advantageous to use because they avoid toxicity that is encountered with psychoactive cannabinoids at high doses.”

According to the description, CBD can be ingested in very large amounts without side effects.

“No signs of toxicity or serious side effects have been observed following chronic administration of cannabidiol to healthy volunteers, even in large acute doses of 700mg/day.”

The patent explains that cannabidiol previously had not been considered useful as a neuroprotectant. However, it cites various studies on cannabidiol as an antiepileptic and as a potential treatment for glaucoma.

Drop the Prozac and the Xanax — marijuana could be all that is needed to treat individuals suffering from anxiety and depression

Drop the Prozac and the Xanax — marijuana could be all that is needed to treat individuals suffering from anxiety and depression.

Drop the Prozac and the Xanax — marijuana could be all that is needed to treat individuals suffering from anxiety and depression

Drop the Prozac and the Xanax — marijuana could be all that is needed to treat individuals suffering from anxiety and depression. Longtime lovers of the leaf have known for many years that smoking weed is one of the best ways of making a miserable existence more tolerable, but new research suggests that the compounds responsible for the smell of marijuana may be an effective remedy for people under the thumb of debilitating social disorders.

The study published in the latest journal Physiology & Behavior finds that beta-caryophyllene (BCP), a terpene found in the essential oils of cannabis that contributes to the plants unique aroma, acts as a cannabinoid by infiltrating the CB2 receptor in the brain, which provides health benefits without producing stoned results.

Researchers from the United Arab Emirates University in Al Ain believe their latest study clearly shows that beta-caryophyllene, which is also found in common grocery store spices like rosemary and black pepper, can be used to fight against anxiety and depression.

“The present study has clearly demonstrated the anxiolytic and anti-depressant effect of β-caryophyllene and its underlying mechanism in a CB2 receptor-dependent manner in rodents,” wrote the study authors. “The results also support the involvement of the CB2 receptor in the regulation of emotional behavior and suggest that this receptor could be a relevant therapeutic target for the treatment of anxiety and depressive disorders.”

Previous studies are consistent with this team’s latest discovery. In 2008, German scientists discovered that beta-caryophyllene was a cannabinoid that binds to the CB2 receptor. This discovery was important because it provided answers to the scientific struggle for the development of a synthetic cannabinoid that could be used to treat a variety of ailments without producing high effects. How convenient that beta-caryophyllene is a common denominator in most food…and marijuana.

Researchers believe it is because of beta-caryophyllene that marijuana users often claim relief from anxiety and depression as their reason for consuming the herb. In fact, the 2013 Trends in Pharmacological Sciences reports indicates that “epidemiological studies have indicated that the most common self-reported reason for using cannabis is rooted in its ability to reduce feelings of stress, tension and anxiety.”

Mike Adams writes for stoners and smut enthusiasts in HIGH TIMES, Playboy’s The Smoking Jacket and Hustler Magazine. You can follow him on Twitter @adamssoup and on Facebook/mikeadams73.

Acid/Base Balance and the human body

pH [Potential of Hydrogen] Chart

Acidic and basic [alkaline] are two extremes that describe a chemical property chemicals. Mixing acids and bases can cancel out or neutralize their extreme effects. A substance that is neither acidic nor basic is neutral.

The pH scale measures how acidic or basic a substance is. The pH scale ranges from 0 to 14. A pH of 7 is neutral. A pH less than 7 is acidic. A pH greater than 7 is basic.

The pH scale is logarithmic and as a result, each whole pH value below 7 is ten times more acidic than the next higher value. For example, pH 4 is ten times more acidic than pH 5 and 100 times (10 times 10) more acidic than pH 6. The same holds true for pH values above 7, each of which is ten times more alkaline (another way to say basic) than the next lower whole value. For example, pH 10 is ten times more alkaline than pH 9 and 100 times (10 times 10) more alkaline than pH 8.

Pure water is neutral. But when chemicals are mixed with water, the mixture can become either acidic or basic. Examples of acidic substances are vinegar and lemon juice. Lye, milk of magnesia, and ammonia are examples of basic substances.

pH ranges from 0 to 14 (totally acid to totally alkaline). This range is shown in the pH chart below. Pure water has a pH very near 7 that is neutral.

Understanding Water
Potential of Hydrogen (pH)
The quantity of hydrogen or hydroxyl ions in a solution determines whether the solution is acid or alkaline. Using a logarithmic scale, pH measures, the Understanding Water
Potential of Hydrogen (pH)
The quantity of hydrogen or hydroxyl ions in a solution determines whether the solution is acid or alkaline. Using a logarithmic scale, pH measures, the relative alkalinity or acidity of a solution. The pH scale was first proposed by S.P.L Sorensen, a Dane, in 1909 to identify the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) and hydroxide ions (OH -).

Of the several methods used to measure pH, two of the simplest are litmus paper and liquid acid-base indicators. Two types of litmus paper, red and blue, are coated with a dye that changes color in the presence of acids and bases. Red litmus paper will turn blue in the presence of a base. Blue litmus paper will turn red in the presence of an acid.

Water Quality Test Red

Water Quality Test Blue

pH ranges from 0 to 14 (totally acid to totally alkaline). This range is shown in the pH chart below. Pure water has a pH very near 7 that is neutral.

Water Quality pH Chart

Human blood has a normal level of 7.35 to 7.4. The body chemistry works to keep the blood in this range despite the intake of various foods with wide pH ranges.
WaterQuality ph

The pH scale was first proposed by S.P.L Sorensen, a Dane, in 1909 to identify the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) and hydroxide ions (OH -).

Of the several methods used to measure pH, two of the simplest are litmus paper and liquid acid-base indicators. Two types of litmus paper, red and blue, are coated with a dye that changes color in the presence of acids and bases. Red litmus paper will turn blue in the presence of a base. Blue litmus paper will turn red in the presence of an acid.

Water Quality Test Red

Water Quality Test Blue

pH ranges from 0 to 14 (totally acid to totally alkaline). This range is shown in the pH chart below. Pure water has a pH very near 7 that is neutral.

Water Quality pH Chart

Human blood has a normal level of 7.35 to 7.4. The body chemistry works to keep the blood in this range despite the intake of various foods with wide pH ranges.
WaterQuality ph

Medical Marijuana Breakthroughs of 2013

Medical Marijuana Breakthroughs of 2013.

Medical Marijuana Breakthroughs of 2013

Medical marijuana research gained some serious momentum over the course of 2013, with a number of important studies published that signify the importance of cannabis as life saving medicine.

To commemorate some of the most important scientific advances made this year in the realm of cannabis research, the people at Leaf Science recently compiled a list of the Biggest Medical Marijuana Breakthroughs of 2013. Here are seven of the most noteworthy:

FDA Approves First Clinical Trials Using Marijuana for Epilepsy: Even though medical experts have been providing evidence for the past four decades that suggests marijuana can offer relief for epilepsy patients, it was not until 2013 that the Federal Drug Administration approved the first clinical trials.

Perhaps due to a bit of strong-arming by the media in regards to epilepsy cases in children, GW Pharmaceuticals received approval from the FDA to conduct the first clinical trails using the company’s cannabis-based medication — Epidiolex — which uses a high concentrate of the non-psychoactive ingredient found in marijuana called cannabidiol.

There is speculation that the research surrounding marijuana as treatment for epilepsy could pave the way for legalization on a federal level.

Research Shows Marijuana Kills Leukemia: For decades, science has also been privy to the positive effects marijuana provides for cancer patients. However, in 2013, researchers from the University of London discovered that the non-stoner ingredients found in marijuana, specifically cannabidiol, cannabigerol and cannabigevarin, could be used as powerful agents in combating this life-threatening disease.

First Clinical Trails Using Marijuana for Brain Cancer: Perhaps one of the most highly recognized medical marijuana breakthroughs covered in the media: GW Pharmaceuticals began the first ever clinical trials of its cannabis-based medicine — Sativex — for the use in combating brain cancer.

The human trials for GW’s cannabis spray consist of 20 patients suffering from persistent glioblastoma — the most common and deadliest form of brain tumor found in humans. The hope is that the combination of marijuana compounds THC and CBD when used as reinforcement to traditional chemotherapy can help fight cancer with a higher level of intensity.

Research Shows Marijuana Helps Smokers Quit: Earlier this year, researchers from the University College London found that cannibidiol, the non-psychoactive compound in marijuana, could actually help tobacco smokers put down the habit.
The placebo-controlled study, which consisted of study participants taking a hit of vaporized CBD whenever they felt the need for a cigarette, discovered a 40% drop in cigarette use, compared to participants in the placebo group.

Research Finds Clinical Evidence That Marijuana Helps Crohn’s Disease: Israeli researchers recently conducted human trails to investigate the effects of marijuana on Crohn’s disease. Interestingly, the study found that daily use of marijuana had a positive impact on patients suffering from the disease – 5 of the 11 study participants reportedly went into full remission.

Research Finds Clinical Evidence That Marijuana Helps Parkinson’s Disease: Israeli researchers conducted another human trial, this time to investigate the effects of marijuana on Parkinson’s disease. Results indicated that study participants showed a significant decrease in tremors, rigidity and bradykinesia after smoking marijuana.

Researchers also documented a decrease in pain by those suffering from the disease, which helped patients achieve better sleep.

Harvard Study Finds Smoking Marijuana May Make You Thinner, Less Prone to Diabetes: Harvard University conducted an observational study of nearly 4,600 adults that found marijuana use could be linked to slimmer bodies.

While other studies have shown that marijuana users have a higher caloric intake than non-users, Harvard researchers discovered that stoners are more insulin resistant and have higher levels of good cholesterol — lowering their risk for diabetes.

Researchers believe that while marijuana use has been linked to unhealthy eating habits, it may also have a positive impact on human metabolism.

All of the information provided in this article comes from Leaf Science

What is meant by Acid/Base Balance

What is meant by Acid/Base Balance.

What is meant by Acid/Base Balance

What Does pH Stand For?

Have you ever wondered what pH stands for or where the term originated? Here is the answer to the question and a look at the history of the pH scale.

Answer: pH is the negative log of hydrogen ion concentration in a water-based solution. The term “pH” was first described by Danish biochemist Søren Peter Lauritz Sørensen in 1909. pH is an abbreviation for “power of hydrogen” where “p” is short for the German word for power, potenz and H is the element symbol for hydrogen. The H is capitalized because it is standard to capitalize element symbols. The abbreviation also works in French, with pouvoir hydrogen translating as “the power of hydrogen”.

Logarithmic Scale
The pH scale is a logarithmic scale that usually runs from 1 to 14. Each whole pH value below 7 (the pH of pure water) is ten times more acidic than the higher value and each whole pH value above 7 is ten times less acidic than the one below it. For example, a pH of 3 is ten times more acidic than a pH of 4 and 100 times (10 times 10) more acidic than a pH value of 5. So, a strong acid may have a pH of 1-2, while a strong base may have a pH of 13-14. A pH near 7 is considered to be neutral.
What Is the pH of Stomach Acid? | Can You Have Negative pH?

Acids, bases and salts are among the most important chemical compounds used by chemists.

Acids, bases and salts are among the most important chemical compounds used by chemists..

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